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MLA Citation Format


  Book Entries Periodical Entries Encyclopedias 
Electronic and Online Resources 

Author(s).  Book Title.  City of Publication: Publisher, most recent copyright year 
Book by One Author
Handy, Charles.  The Age of Unreason.  Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1990.

Book by Two or Three Authors 
Lawrence, Jerome, and Robert Lee.  Inherit the Wind .   Toronto: Bantam Publishing Co., 1955.    

Book by More than Three Authors 
Hastings, Marie et al.  Biogenetics .   Berkeley: Univ. of California Press: 1985.

Book by a Corporate Author 
American Diabetes Association.  Living with Diabetes . New York:  Random House, 1994. 

Spacing Entries 
While these examples are single-spaced, in your paper you must double-space within and between entries


An Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterward 
Epstein, E.L.  Afterward.  Lord of the Flies.  By William Golding.  n.p.:  Putnam,  1954. 185-190.


A Translation 
Derrida, Jacques.  The Gift of Death.  Trans. David Wills.  Chicago:  Univ. of Chicago Press, 1995.  


A Pamphlet 
FDA.  Check the Date:  Dangers of Expired Prescription Drugs.  New York:  FDA, 2001. 


Entire Edited Anthology or Collection 
Wieder, Jason ed.  Letters of the Civil War Era.  2 vols.  Athens:  Univ. of Georgia Press, 1993.

Abbreviations for Missing Information
n.p. No place of publication
n.p.No publisher
n.d.  No date of publication
n.pag.No pag


    Article, Story, or Essay in an Anthology or Reference Book 
Author(s). "Article, Story, or Essay Title."  Title of Anthology.  Name of the Translator, Editor,   or Compiler of the anthology.  State:  Anthology Publisher, date.  page numbers of cited piece.

Toelken, Barre.  "Life and Death in the Navajo Coyote Tales."  Recovering the Word : Essays
on Native American Literature
.   Eds.  Brian Swann and Arnold Krupat. Berkeley:  Univ. of
California Press, 1990.  388-401. 


Previously Published Scholarly Article in a Collection 
Author(s). "Article Title." Title of Original Publication.  [Original publication citation].  Rpt. in Title of Current Publication.  Editor's Name.  [Current publication citation].  pages.

Shield, Tamara.  "Feminist View of Jane Austen."  British Authors 24 (1984): 232-38. Rpt. in
Twentieth Century Literary Criticism . Vol. 25. Ed. Dennis Poupard. Detroit: 
Gale Research, 1988. 399-402. 


Author(s). "Article Title."  Periodical Title.  Date: Inclusive pages.

Magazine Article 
Martinez, Rachelle P.  "What Can Be Done?"  Newsweek. 21 Mar.
1988: 57-58.


Newspaper Article 
Smith, Bernard.  "Earthquake Country."  San Diego Union Tribune. 9
Sept. 1996, final ed.:  A1+.


Scholarly Journal Article 
Author(s). "Article Title."  Periodical Title .  Volume # (Year): Inclusive pages.  

Draner, Marcena.  "Electronic Poetry."  Computers and the Humanities. 29 (1992):  416-25. 

Author(s). "Article Title."  Encyclopedia Title, edition.

Horst, Joanna.  "Ellison, Ralph."  Encyclopedia Britannica , 1992 ed. 

"China."  World Book Encyclopedia , 1995 ed.  


If no author is given, begin with the title of the page or article and use a shortened form of the title for parenthetical citations. If any other information is missing (for example, date of last update or revision), simply leave it out and go on to the next item of information.

When citing a print source also found online, you must first give all the citation information for the print source and then add the online source information.

Personal Website or Homepage 
Author(s). Home page. Date of posting/revision.  Name of sponsoring institution or organization.
  Date of access <electronic address or URL>.

Hylton, Jeremy. Home page. 13 May 2002 <>;.


Professional or Corporate Website 
Author(s). Name of Page. Date of posting/revision.  Name of sponsoring institution or organization. Date of access <electronic address or URL>.

Gray, Terry. Mr. William Shakespeare and the Internet.  6 May 2002. Palomar College. 13
May 2002 <>;.

Article or Page on a Website 
Author(s). "Title of Article or Page." Name of Web Site. Date of last update or revision.  Name of sponsoring institution or organization. Date of access <electronic address or URL>.

Mabillard, Amanda. "Shakespeare of Stratford." Shakespeare Online. 4 April 2002.  13 May
2002 <>;.

"Ranch-Raised Fur: Captive Cruelty." PETA Factsheets. People for the Ethical Treatment of
    Animals (PETA). 13 May 2002 <>.

Article in an Online Magazine 
Author(s). "Title of Article or Page." Name of Magazine or Journal. Date of publication. Date of access <electronic address or URL>.

Huang, Greg and Sage Stossel. "Flashbacks: The Public and Private Worlds of Charles
Dickens." The Atlantic Unbound. 26 April 2002: 13 May 2002


Article in an Online Scholarly Journal  
Author(s). "Title of Article or Page." Name of Magazine or Journal. Volume#:Issue# (Year of   publication). Date of access <electronic address or URL>.

Rosenthal, Steven R., et al. "Developing New Smallpox Vaccines." Emerging Infectious
Diseases (EID). 7:6(2001). 13 May 2002 <>.


Article in an Online Database or Encyclopedia  
Author(s). "Title of Article." Name of Database. Date of last update or revision. Date of access
  <electronic address or URL>.

Kastan, David Scott.  "Shakespeare, William". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 13
  May 2002 <>;.


Magazine or Newspaper Article 
Author(s). "Title of Article." Name of Magazine or Newspaper.  Day Month Year. Page(s).  Name of Database. Date of last update or revision. Date of access <electronic address or  URL>.

Hobson, Katherine.  "Mind versus Face." U.S. News & World Report. 1 April 2002. 61. Gale  
        Group Student Resource Center. 23 May 2002 <>;.

"Bush Presses For Cloning Ban." Los Angeles Times. 11 April 2002. A-17. Gale Group
  Student Resource Center. 23 May 2002 <>.


Scholarly Journal Article 
Author(s). "Title of Article or Page." Name of Magazine or Journal . Volume#:Issue# (Year of
publication). Name of Database. Date of Access <electronic address or URL>.<o:p> </o:p>

Larkin, Marilynn. "St John's Wort not Effective for Major Depression." The Lancet. 
359:9314(2002). Gale Group Student Resource Center. 23 May 2002


Author. "Subject of E-mail." E-mail to [name of recipient]. Date of e-mail.

Sullivan, Peter. "Re: Homeless Shelters." E-mail to Justin Price. 7 April 2002.


Author(s). Name of Text . City: Publisher, Year. Name of Web Site. Date of last update or
  revision. Name of sponsoring institution or organization. Date of Access <electronic

Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet. The Complete Works of William Shakespeare.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 13 May 2002 <>.

Poe, E.A. "The Fall of the House of Usher." The Short-Story : Specimens Illustrating Its
. Ed. Brander Matthews. New York: American Book Company, 1907. The
  Bartleby Project. 13 May 2002 <>;.

Author, if given. "Title of article." Title of CD-ROM. Edition, release, or version. Publication   medium (CD-ROM, diskette). City of Publication: Publisher's Name, year of publication.

Moulton, Gary E. "Lewis, Meriwether." Information Finder. 1995. CD-ROM. Chicago: 
World Book, 1995.


Film, radio, or TV program

"Title of the Episode or Segment." Narrator. Writer. Producer. Title of the Program or Series.  Name of the network Call letters and city of the local station. Broadcast date. 

The First Americans. Narr. Hugh Downs.  Writ. and prod. Craig Haffner.   NBC News
KNSD. San Diego. 6 April 1994.


Audio recording 
Author or performer. Title of Song. Title of Recording. Performance group, conductor and soloists (classical recordings).Publisher or Record Label, Year.

Lennon, John, and Paul McCartney. Come Together. Abbey Road . EMI Records, 1987.

Handel, Georg Friedrich. "Suite No. 1 F Major." Water Music Concerto Grosso Op. 3 No. 3                   London Festival Orchestra. Cond. Ross Pople. Arte Nova, 1995.


Film or video recording 
Title . Director. Performers. Format (Videocassette, DVD). Studio or Publisher, Year.

Gone with the Wind. Dir. David O. Selznick. Perf. Clark Gable, Vivien Leigh, Leslie Howard,
Olivia de Haviland. DVD. MGM, 1939.


Work of art 
Artist. Title of Artwork. Name of Museum, City.

DaVinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. The Louvre, Paris.


Interview (conducted by you)Name of person interviewed. Type of interview (Personal Interview, Telephone Interview). Day  Month Year.

Gates, Bill. Telephone Interview. 4 Dec. 1999.


Lecture or speech 
Speaker's name. "Title of Speech" (or use a label such as Lecture, Address, or Speech). Occasion name or Conference Title. Location, City. Day Month Year.

Sanchez, Jill. "The Jazz Age." Class lecture. Rancho Bernardo High School, San Diego. 
Nov. 1996.